Tuberculosis (TB) is still responsible for the deaths of >1 million people yearly worldwide, and therefore its correct diagnosis is one of the key components of any TB eradication programme. However, current TB diagnostic tests have many limitations, and improved diagnostic accuracy is urgently needed. To improve the diagnostic performance of traditional serology, a combination of different Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) antigens and different antibody isotypes has been suggested, with some showing promising performance for the diagnosis of active TB. Given the incomplete protection conferred by bacille Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccination against adult pulmonary TB, efforts to discover novel TB vaccines are ongoing. Efficacy studies from advanced TB vaccines designed to stimulate cell-mediated immunity failed to show protection, suggesting that they may not be sufficient and warranting the need for other types of immunity. The role of antibodies as tools for TB therapy, TB diagnosis and TB vaccine design is discussed. Finally, we propose that the inclusion of antibody-based TB vaccines in current clinical trials may be advisable to improve protection.